AI: What are the 4 types of it?

AI: What are the 4 types of it?

The 21st century has witnessed many breakthroughs that have made a turning point in the history of technology and that have influenced a vast variety of areas such as learning, personal communications, research, and technical activities. The latest discoveries that technology has yielded is known as Artificial Intelligence, or AI, which is the technical simulation of human interactions and mental processes carried out naturally by humans. It is the production of intelligent machines that are capable of performing cognitive processes such as problem solving, learning, and correction. This branch of computer science has come to exceed all expectations, producing machines that are not only intelligent in the technical sense, but are also able to understand emotions and process reasonable input into authentic output.

There are many definitions of Artificial Intelligence, which differ and change according to different expectations and the level of processes carried out by the said machine. Generally, Artificial Intelligence is a term used to refer to any computer-related machines or robots that are capable of performing “intelligent” tasks that usually require the development and usage of cognitive skills, reason, and creative thought. There is a slight disagreement as to the level of expected performance and degree of intelligence required to perform any given task; that is, simulating the natural intelligence of humans or exceeding it to the next level. However, AI is inclusive of some basic traits that are key to all such machines; knowledge, perception, planning, reasoning, and problem solving are all aspects of intelligent machines.

The broad development of Artificial Intelligence has made it necessary to separate products of the field into different types, and according to Arend Hintze, an assistant professor of integrative biology and computer science and engineering at Michigan State University, AI can be divided into four categories:

·        Type 1 of AI are reactive machines, which has the possibility of making predictions and analyzing current situations without referring to past experiences or memory. An example of this type is the program Deep Blue, which is an IBM chess program.

·        Type 2 of AI are limited memory machines, which is used in decision-making machines such as auto-driving cars where decisions are made momentarily and can be used as past experiences.

·        Type 3 is theory of mind, which does exist yet but hypothetically refers to the fact that individuals have their own ideas, beliefs, desires, and intentions.

·        Type 4 refers to machines with self-awareness, which also do not exist but are hypothetically aware of their situations and their current state and others’.


The broad spread of the AI technology has allowed manufacturers and computer scientists to integrate this technology in many machines meant for daily usage. Some examples of AI are:

ü  Automation, which is meant to simulate high-end repeatable tasks.

ü  Machine learning, which can be used to detect data patterns and label them.

ü  Machine vision, which is used to give machines “camera eyes” that are an exaggerated version of human eyesight. Some machines are altered to see beyond barriers such as walls, making them suitable for detecting objects at a distance or performing medical scans.

ü  Language processing that allows machines to “read” and label text in emails and to translate text to and from speech.

It is no secret that technology has bot left much room to the imagination; however, expectations are always exceeded and new surprises are always on their way. Artificial Intelligence and such discoveries has allowed humans to tone down the intensity of their lives and has taken many mundane tasks off their shoulders, in turn saving effort and time and increasing productivity. In fact, AI has become a daily crossing that is essential in stepping up the quality of lifestyle on both professional and personal levels.